Post-infectious inflammation, autoimmunity, and OCD: Sydenham Chorea, Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS), and Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Disorder (PANS)

A Vreeland; D Calaprice; N Or-Geva; RE. Frye; D Agalliu; HM. Lachman; C Pittenger; S Pallanti; K Williams; M Ma; M Thienemann; A Gagliano; E Mellins; J Frankovich

In this review article, we outline the accumulating evidence supporting the role neuroinflammation plays in these disorders. We describe work with animal models including patient-derived anti-neuronal autoantibodies, and we outline imaging studies that show alterations in the basal ganglia. In addition, we present research on metabolites, which are helpful in deciphering functional phenotypes, and on the implication of sleep in these disorders. Finally, we encourage future researchers to collaborate across medical specialties (e.g., pediatrics, psychiatry, rheumatology, immunology, and infectious disease)in order to further research on clinical syndromes presenting with neuropsychiatric manifestations.

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