Clinical-Serological Characterization and Treatment Outcome of a Large Cohort of Italian Children with Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection and Pediatric Acute Neuropsychiatric Syndrome

Gemma Lepri, Donato Rigante, Silvia Bellando Randone, Antonella Meini, Alessandra Ferrari, Giusyda Tarantino, Madeleine W. Cunningham,Fernanda Falcini

Our study has confirmed the usefulness of the preliminary diagnostic criteria for PANDAS and PANS, revealing also the importance of early diagnosis to reduce the risk of evolution toward disabling chronic neurologic sequelae. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis has resulted in a substantial benefit to reduce neurological symptoms for the majority of PANDAS and PANS patients over a 7-year period.

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