D Endres, MA Schiele, BC Frye, A Schlump, B Feige, k Nickel, B Berger, M Reisert, H Urbach, K Domschke, N Venhoff, H Prüss, L Tebartz van Elst. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder With Inflammatory Cerebrospinal Fluid Changes and Intrathecal Antinuclear Antibody Staining. Biological Psychiatry. Elsevier. 3 September 2022. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2022.06.037
Autoimmune-mediated obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during childhood has long been established in the context of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection. In adult psychiatry, the topic has increasingly gained interest in light of new developments regarding autoimmune encephalitis and autoimmune psychosis. Hence, diagnostic criteria for autoimmune OCD in adulthood have been proposed recently, and the first respective cases were reported. For the detection of neuroinflammatory processes, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis (besides the far more invasive brain biopsy) is considered the most sensitive diagnostic tool. Here, we present 2 paradigmatic OCD patients with inflammatory CSF signals including antinuclear antibody staining in CSF and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/electroencephalography (EEG) findings compatible with OCD.