Monthly Archives:
July 2019

July 29, 2019

PANS students require a variety of accommodations to support the multiple symptoms across the learning domains. The level of support is contingent upon the severity of...

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The role of infections in autoimmune encephalitides

B. Joubert, J.Dalmau
International meeting of the French society of neurology & SPILF 2019

Abstract: Autoimmune encephalitides are autoimmune neurological disorders characterized by rapidly progressive central nervous system symptoms associated with specific auto-antibodies targeting neuronal cell-surface proteins. The clinical features of encephalitis are frequently preceded by symptoms suggesting an infectious process, and specific pathogens have been detected at the early phase of the disease in some patients, suggesting that it can be triggered by infections. Moreover, recent data have shown an association with specific HLA haplotypes, suggesting a genetic susceptibility to develop at least some subtypes of autoimmune encephalitis. Nonetheless, the immunological mechanisms leading from an adequate response to infection to autoimmunity against neuronal self-antigens remain highly hypothetical. Molecular mimicry, inborn errors of the host immune system, as well as epitope spreading and chronic activation of innate immunity actors, may be involved. Importantly, the frequency of prodromal infectious symptoms and association with HLA haplotypes differ among autoimmune encephalitides, suggesting that depending on the subtype distinct immunopathogenic mechanisms are involved. A direct link between infection and autoimmune encephalitis was recently provided by the demonstration that most of the so-called relapsing neurological symptoms post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis corresponded to viral-induced autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies against NMDA receptors or other, yet unknown, neuronal surface antigens. Although this association has also been demonstrated experimentally in mice, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain unknown. Overall, a body of clinical, epidemiological and experimental data suggests infections are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune encephalitides. Further studies, focusing on the interplays between pathogens, genetic determinants of the host immune response, and brain inflammation, are needed to clarify the immunological mechanisms that lead to autoimmune encephalitis after infection.

Communication, Collaboration
July 28, 2019
Communication, Collaboration

PANS recovery is not a straight trajectory. PANS is relapsing and remitting, and there can be setbacks during periods of treatment and healing. Communication helps the team (parents, school staff,...

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ENT involvement and orobuccal movements’ disorders in Pandas patients: assessment and rehabilitations tools

S. Cocuzza, S. Marino, A. Gulino, E. Pustorino, P. Murabito, A. Maniaci, L. Sabino, R. Taibi, M. Di Luca, R. Falsaperla, G. Campione, M. Vecchio, P. Pavone
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci-2019

Findings from our study show that respiratory diseases, characterizing a group of patients with pandas, are the direct consequences of the malformed or hypertrophic condition and suggesting in these conditions surgical therapy as an approaching tool.