Monthly Archives:
March 2023

Cytokine Effects on the Basal Ganglia and Dopamine Function: the Subcortical Source of Inflammatory Malaise

Felger JC, Miller AH. Cytokine effects on the basal ganglia and dopamine function: the subcortical source of inflammatory malaise. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2012 Aug;33(3):315-27. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2012.09.003. Epub 2012 Sep 21. PMID: 23000204; PMCID: PMC3484236.

  • Cytokines released during inflammation target the basal ganglia and dopamine
  • Cytokines can disrupt dopamine function by effects on synthesis, packaging, release, and reuptake
  • Cytokine effects on basal ganglia dopamine may cause anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing
  • Cytokines may contribute to behavioral disorders associated with chronic inflammation
Persistent SARS-CoV-2 Infection, EBV, HHV-6 and Other Factors May Contribute to Inflammation and Autoimmunity in Long COVID
Vojdani A, Vojdani E, Saidara E, Maes M. Persistent SARS-CoV-2 Infection, EBV, HHV-6 and Other Factors May Contribute to Inflammation and Autoimmunity in Long COVID. Viruses. 2023 Jan 31;15(2):400. doi: 10.3390/v15020400. PMID: 36851614; PMCID: PMC9967513.
“Based on our review of the literature, in both past and recent studies, we have found clues to these mechanisms that might drive this long COVID, with the goal of identifying host or virus factors that can be intervened upon to prevent or reverse this condition. A better understanding of these immunological mechanisms in patients with severe long COVID holds great promise for designing treatment strategies to minimize viral persistence, control the reactivation of latent viruses, and to modulate a dysregulated immune system and host microbiota, which together are involved in the virus-induced inflammation and autoimmunity that are observed in patients with long COVID.”
Neuropsychiatric Testing Provides Objective Insight into Beneficial Effects of IVIG in Patients with PANS

PANS IVIG Neuropsych testing UofArizona

Dr. Daines and the team at the CPAE Center of Excellence (University of Arizona) recently conducted a poster presentation at the AAAAI. The study demonstrates the beneficial effects of IVIG treatments for PANS patients. 11 out of 12 PANS patients showed “significant” improvement following IVIG treatment. 

The significant presence of baseline hypogammaglobulinemia in children with PANS emphasizes the presumed role of immune dysfunction in disease pathogenesis, especially given the known connection between immunodeficiency and autoimmunity (8,9). Thus, immunomodulatory interventions are presumed to have a crucial therapeutic role.

It did not assess the benefit of IVIG for OCD or Restricted Eating as the other psychiatric, and neuropsychological manifestations can sometimes overshadow OCD (1-3). Since objective post-treatment evaluations are scarce and challenging given disease complexity (5-7), the study used standardized neuropsychiatric testing to assess how (IVIG) treatment impacts cognitive function in children with PANS.

The research, as presented in the poster session, will be submitted as a journal article.