Bambauer R, Schiel R. Therapeutic Apheresis and Immunosuppression in Immunologic Diseases: A Review and OwnObservations. Clin Immunol Res. 2021; 5(2): 1-36. ISSN 2639-8486
“TA should be reserved for treatment of children and adolescents
who are severely affected by PANDAS. In such patients, it
appears to be safe, well-tolerated, and beneficial treatment
option . Bien et al reported in 2020, besides the first-line
interventions of steroids, IVIG, and TA as second-line treatments
cyclophosphamide or rituximab .”
Abnormal mTOR Activity in Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric and MIA-Associated Autism Spectrum Disorders
Trifonova, E.A.; Mustafin, Z.S.; Lashin, S.A.; Kochetov, A.V. Abnormal mTOR Activity in Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric and MIA-Associated Autism Spectrum Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 967. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020967
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by
the early onset of communication and behavioral problems. ASD is highly heritable; however,
environmental factors also play a considerable role in this disorder. A significant part of both
syndromic and idiopathic autism cases could be attributed to disorders caused by mammalian
target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent translation deregulation. This narrative review analyzes both bioinformatic and experimental evidence that connects mTOR signaling to the maternal autoantibody-related (MAR) autism spectrum and autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders simultaneously. In addition, we reconstruct a network presenting the interactions between the mTOR signaling and eight MAR ASD genes coding for ASD-specific maternal autoantibody target proteins. The research discussed in this review demonstrates novel perspectives and validates the need for a subtyping of ASD on the grounds of pathogenic mechanisms. The utter necessity of designing ELISA-based test panels to identify all antibodies related to autism-like behavior is also considered.
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