Monthly Archives:
May 2021

Sydenham Chorea Managed With Immunoglobulin in Acute Rheumatic Fever

Ali A, Anugwom G O, Rehman U, et al. (May 12, 2021) Sydenham Chorea Managed With Immunoglobulin in Acute Rheumatic Fever. Cureus 13(5): e14990. doi:10.7759/cureus.14990

Conclusions:  SC is a rare presentation of ARF. Without adequate treatment and supportive care, SC can cause severe functional impairment. ARF should be considered as a differential diagnosis in school-aged children presenting with choreiform movements. Chorea can be managed with antiepileptics and antipsychotics; however, evidence on IVIG use for chorea has also been reported. There is no international consensus on the standard choice of treatment; therefore, IVIG should be used in severe functional impairment when unresponsive to other therapies.

Paediatric Acute onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: Exploratory study finds no evidence of HLA class II association but high rate of autoimmunity in first‐degree relatives

Elisabeth Fernell, Mikael Sundin, Anders Fasth, Lisa Dinkler, Martyna Galazka, Christopher Gillberg, Mats Johnson Acta Paediatr. DOI: 10.1111/apa.15805

No HLA allele association such as seen in children with narcolepsy after H1N1 immunisation could be confirmed in this group of children with PANS. However, more than half the group had a first‐degree relative with a diagnosed autoimmune disease.

Full Article

SARS-CoV-2 related Paediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome

Piero Pavone, Manuela Ceccarelli, Silvia Marino, Daniela Caruso, Raffaele Falsaperla, Massimiliano Berretta, et al. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2021 . May 04, 2021 DOI:10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00135-8

“Post-infectious, autoimmune, and neuro-inflammatory events are the main mechanisms of Paediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS).4 PANS presents with a sudden onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or a severely restricted food intake, and concurrent neuropsychiatric symptoms and motor dysfunction.4 The estimated prevalence of OCD in childhood and adolescence is 0·25–4·00%, with those aged between 16–18 years (1%) having the highest prevalence.5, 6, 7 Here, we report on two unrelated children with PANS that started 2 weeks after a positive COVID-19 nasopharyngeal swab.”

  • Two young adolescents Diagnosed with COVID-19 by a nasal swab
  • PANS started 2 weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis
  • Had acute new OCD, neuropsychiatric, and motor dysfunction symptoms
  • SARS-CoV-2 needs to be acknowledged in the differential diagnosis of PANS

Full Study